Molecular biology of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key factor in many processes which can be important for general homeostasis. VDRs are found in a variety of skin cells, including monocytes, dendritic cellular material, macrophages, neutrophils, keratinocytes, and epithelial cells.

The vitamin D radio is a indivisible receptor that is triggered by the calciferol hormone. It is a receptor that forms a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor. The binding of the vitamin D complex along with the RXR produces the service of a lot of intracellular signaling pathways. These types of pathways produce immediate replies independent of the transcriptional response of target genetics.

VDRs also are thought to mediate the effects of calciferol on bone tissue maintenance. This is supported by the relationship between bone tissue density and VDR receptor alleles in humans. In addition , a number of VDR concentrate on genes have been completely identified, including calcium-binding healthy proteins, calbindin D-9k and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase.

Many studies contain investigated the expression of VDR in various tissue. For instance, confocal microscopy shows VDR elemental staining in human cortex cells. In addition , VDR has been discovered in light matter oligodendrocytes. These studies have led to the hypothesis that calcium-dependent platelet activation may be regulated by swift non-genomic effects of VDR in mitochondria.

In addition to vitamin D, VDRs have been implicated in dangerous calcium homeostasis in the digestive tract. Yet , the exact device is not yet known. Various elements, including environmental exposures and genetic factors, may control VDR expression.